On 15 January, 2021, the President of Kazakhstan, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, presented to the newly elected members of parliament (Mazhilis) a third package of political reforms. The new initiatives of the President are aimed at further institutional development of the political system of Kazakhstan and enhancing the mechanisms of the protection of human rights.
Their implementation will facilitate strengthening the human rights protection system, expand civic participation, develop parliamentarism and a multi-party system, and further democratise the country.
Third package of political reforms
President Tokayev proposed the following reforms:
- Reduce the threshold for political parties to gain seats in the Mazhilis (lower house of parliament) from 7% to 5%
- After the introduction of elections of rural akims (Mayors) starting in 2021, Kazakhstan will then proceed to the election of district akims
- Introduce the option “against all” in the ballots for all future elections
- Legally formalise the institution of online petitions
- Adopt an additional law on the Commissioner for Human Rights – the ombudsman (the law will streamline the activities of this institution in various areas and sectors)
- Strengthen the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights (including the creation of its regional offices)
- Implementation of the Youth Development Index to evaluate the efficiency of youth policy
- Provide measures to stimulate the activities of charities
Previous packages of political reforms
The first package of reforms was presented at the meeting of the National Council of Public Trust on December 20, 2019. They were implemented ahead of the parliamentary elections, which took place on 10 January, 2021.
The reforms include:
- The registration barrier for creating political parties was halved
- A 30 percent quota was introduced for women and youth on electoral party lists
- The institution of parliamentary opposition was formalised and strengthened
- The decriminalisation of Article 130 (defamation) and the humanisation of Article 174 (inciting social discord) of the Criminal Code were initiated
- A new law on assemblies was implemented, which made it easier to organise and participate in rallies
- Kazakhstan joined the Second Optional Protocol of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, abolishing the death penalty
The second package of political reforms was put forward by President Tokayev on September 1, 2020, in his Address to the people of Kazakhstan. The reforms include:
- The transition to direct elections of rural akims (Mayors) from 2021
- It was instructed to develop a Concept for the Development of Local Self-Government and the Law “On Public Control”
- Creation of a single institution for online petitions
- The need was established to improve legislation to combat torture, human trafficking, and protect citizens (especially children) from cyberbullying
- Tasked to accede to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a Communications Procedure
Embaixada do Cazaquistão informa: Novas reformas políticas do presidente Tokayev no Cazaquistão
Em 15 de janeiro de 2021, o Presidente do Cazaquistão, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, apresentou aos recém-eleitos membros do parlamento (Mazhilis) um terceiro pacote de reformas políticas. As novas iniciativas do Presidente visam um maior desenvolvimento institucional do sistema político do Cazaquistão e o aprimoramento dos mecanismos de proteção dos direitos humanos.
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